Examples: Jilu axona, Azerbaijan Jewish axxona/axona (Garbell 1965, 297), Tisqopa axona (Rubba, personal interaction)

(20) The term to have ‘brother’, aha within the BT, features likewise started enhanced, although this means is even included in Turoyo. Hertevin provides each other ?aha and you may ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), however, Mandaic has only aha (Macuch 1965, 495).

At the same time, outside NENA, you will find other terms and conditions: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)

(21) You to as an alternative mystical product which is attested in all NENA languages except Sanandaj Christian (and therefore most likely only a spin pit regarding the proof) is actually aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that this word derives regarding supply ql ‘to getting crooked’. All the dialects utilize the means aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and you may Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.

(22) Other keyword talked about by Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty-two, 134) is actually baxta ‘woman’, with supplanted the brand new Syriac atta in all NENA, however during the Turoyo otherwise Mandaic. Which term seems to derive from Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It’s interesting to see you to an unequal plural survives into the several dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you may Halabja inse.

(23) An urgent creativity mentioned of the Noldeke (1868, 59) is actually rxata, comparable to Syriac rhat. The change off h to x in this one word is used in all of the NENA dialects where the verb is actually attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi roentgen-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).

(24) Some other unanticipated https://datingranking.net/cs/russiancupid-recenze/ invention is the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes the fresh new variations zda?a beneficial, zdaya, and zdala about various languages. Macuch and you will Panoussi (1974, 50) promote a possible derivation from the Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Models to the infixed d are found in most the NENA dialects where the root is attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)

Never assume all of your determining options that come with NENA can be found in a choice of Turoyo or Mandaic

I do believe that a lot more than helps it be clear that NENA dialects express a variety of unique attributes being found none in the previous attested different Aramaic neither about most other life style languages. These characteristics variety along side domain names away from phonology, morphology, and also the lexicon.

Especially, all of the languages off NENA agree in conditions 2, 9, fourteen, fifteen, sixteen, 21, and you may twenty-two. All of the languages where i’ve information and acknowledge requirements 20, 23, and you will twenty-four.

All but Halabja consent during the criteria 8 and eleven. Requirement six is situated in the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you will Sanandaj Religious.

Despite its internal departments, the NENA languages function a strikingly defined classification, split up certainly out-of one another Turoyo and you will Mandaic. The position of these dialects outside of the NENA pale is out of concern.

The levels that possess is mutual all over NENA is very epic when we look at the astounding differences when considering the many languages. The determine of most other dialects towards the NENA could have been both deep and you will broad, and also the level of common intelligibility ranging from dialects could be extremely short. The countless shared designs argue firmly having a common supply off the fresh new NENA dialects, in both an individual dialect or in a small grouping of closely associated dialects. Meanwhile, we are able to detect several important packages away from isoglosses and therefore portray the borders regarding dialect groups.

a) The brand new dialect out of Halabja will not display specific very important innovations which are found through all of the remaining languages. It will not function an effective CCiC-ce preterite out of intransitive verbs (8), it offers no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), and it has zero 3rd individual only one copula which have step one (11). This might be probably the most practical department between dialects away from NENA. This means your left dialects setting a group through which designs spread while you are Halabja remained unchanged by the them.